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Linux Networking: A Simplified Guide to IP Addresses and Routing

Thu, 09/21/2023 - 11:00
by George Whittaker Introduction

Every Linux enthusiast or administrator, at some point, encounters the need to configure or troubleshoot network settings. While the process can appear intimidating, with the right knowledge and tools, mastering Linux networking can be both enlightening and empowering. In this guide, we'll explore the essentials of configuring IP addresses and routing on Linux systems.

Understanding Basic Networking Concepts What is an IP address?

Every device connected to a network has a unique identifier known as an IP address. This serves as its 'address' in the vast interconnected world of the Internet.

  • IPv4 vs. IPv6: While IPv4 is still prevalent, its successor, IPv6, offers a larger address space and improved features. IPv4 addresses look like, whereas IPv6 addresses resemble 1200:0000:AB00:1234:0000:2552:7777:1313.

  • Public vs. Private IPs: Public IPs are globally unique and directly reachable over the Internet. Private IPs are reserved for internal network use and are not routable on the public Internet.

Subnet Masks and Gateways

A subnet mask determines which portion of an IP address is the network and which is the host. The gateway, typically a router, connects local networks to external networks.


At its core, routing is the mechanism that determines how data should travel from its source to its destination across interconnected networks.

Network Configuration Tools in Linux

Linux offers both traditional tools like ifconfig and route and modern ones like ip, nmcli, and nmtui. The choice of tool often depends on the specific distribution and the administrator's preference.

NetworkManager and systemd-networkd have also modernized network management, providing both CLI and GUI tools for configuration.

Configuring IP Addresses in Linux
  1. Using the ip command:

    • Display Current Configuration: ip addr show
    • Assign a Static IP: ip addr add dev eth0
    • Remove an IP Address: ip addr del dev eth0
  2. Using nmcli for NetworkManager:

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Categories: General News

New 'Mirrored' Network Mode Introduced in Windows Subsystem for Linux

Tue, 09/19/2023 - 21:59

Microsoft's Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) continues to evolve with the release of WSL 2 version 0.0.2. This update introduces a set of opt-in preview features designed to enhance performance and compatibility.

Key additions include "Automatic memory reclaim" which dynamically optimizes WSL's memory footprint, and "Sparse VHD" to shrink the size of the virtual hard disk file. These improvements aim to streamline resource usage.

Additionally, a new "mirrored networking mode" brings expanded networking capabilities like IPv6 and multicast support. Microsoft claims this will improve VPN and LAN connectivity from both the Windows host and Linux guest. 

Complementing this is a new "DNS Tunneling" feature that changes how DNS queries are resolved to avoid compatibility issues with certain network setups. According to Microsoft, this should reduce problems connecting to the internet or local network resources within WSL.

Advanced firewall configuration options are also now available through Hyper-V integration. The new "autoProxy" feature ensures WSL seamlessly utilizes the Windows system proxy configuration.

Microsoft states these features are currently rolling out to Windows Insiders running Windows 11 22H2 Build 22621.2359 or later. They remain opt-in previews to allow testing before final integration into WSL.

By expanding WSL 2 with compelling new capabilities in areas like resource efficiency, networking, and security, Microsoft aims to make Linux on Windows more performant and compatible. This evolutionary approach based on user feedback highlights Microsoft's commitment to WSL as a key part of the Windows ecosystem.

Categories: General News

Linux Threat Report: Earth Lusca Deploys Novel SprySOCKS Backdoor in Attacks on Government Entities

Tue, 09/19/2023 - 21:57

The threat actor Earth Lusca, linked to Chinese state-sponsored hacking groups, has been observed utilizing a new Linux backdoor dubbed SprySOCKS to target government organizations globally. 

As initially reported in January 2022 by Trend Micro, Earth Lusca has been active since at least 2021 conducting cyber espionage campaigns against public and private sector targets in Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. Their tactics include spear-phishing and watering hole attacks to gain initial access. Some of Earth Lusca's activities overlap with another Chinese threat cluster known as RedHotel.

In new research, Trend Micro reveals Earth Lusca remains highly active, even expanding operations in the first half of 2023. Primary victims are government departments focused on foreign affairs, technology, and telecommunications. Attacks concentrate in Southeast Asia, Central Asia, and the Balkans regions. 

After breaching internet-facing systems by exploiting flaws in Fortinet, GitLab, Microsoft Exchange, Telerik UI, and Zimbra software, Earth Lusca uses web shells and Cobalt Strike to move laterally. Their goal is exfiltrating documents and credentials, while also installing additional backdoors like ShadowPad and Winnti for long-term spying.

The Command and Control server delivering Cobalt Strike was also found hosting SprySOCKS - an advanced backdoor not previously publicly reported. With roots in the Windows malware Trochilus, SprySOCKS contains reconnaissance, remote shell, proxy, and file operation capabilities. It communicates over TCP mimicking patterns used by a Windows trojan called RedLeaves, itself built on Trochilus.

At least two SprySOCKS versions have been identified, indicating ongoing development. This novel Linux backdoor deployed by Earth Lusca highlights the increasing sophistication of Chinese state-sponsored threats. Robust patching, access controls, monitoring for unusual activities, and other proactive defenses remain essential to counter this advanced malware.

The Trend Micro researchers emphasize that organizations must minimize attack surfaces, regularly update systems, and ensure robust security hygiene to interrupt the tactics, techniques, and procedures of relentless threat groups like Earth Lusca.

Categories: General News

Linux Kernel Faces Reduction in Long-Term Support Due to Maintenance Challenges

Tue, 09/19/2023 - 21:49

The Linux kernel is undergoing major changes that will shape its future development and adoption, according to Jonathan Corbet, Linux kernel developer and executive editor of Linux Weekly News. Speaking at the Open Source Summit Europe, Corbet provided an update on the latest Linux kernel developments and a glimpse of what's to come.

A major change on the horizon is a reduction in long-term support (LTS) for kernel versions from six years to just two years. Corbet explained that maintaining old kernel branches indefinitely is unsustainable and most users have migrated to newer versions, so there's little point in continuing six years of support. While some may grumble about shortened support lifecycles, the reality is that constantly backporting fixes to ancient kernels strains maintainers.

This maintainer burnout poses a serious threat, as Corbet highlighted. Maintaining Linux is largely a volunteer effort, with only about 200 of the 2,000+ developers paid for their contributions. The endless demands on maintainers' time from fuzz testing, fixing minor bugs, and reviewing contributions takes a toll. Prominent maintainers have warned they need help to avoid collapse. Companies relying on Linux must realize giving back financially is in their interest to sustain this vital ecosystem. 

The Linux kernel is also wading into waters new with the introduction of Rust code. While Rust solves many problems, it also introduces new complexities around language integration, evolving standards, and maintainer expertise. Corbet believes Rust will pass the point of no return when core features depend on it, which may occur soon with additions like Apple M1 GPU drivers. Despite skepticism in some corners, Rust's benefits likely outweigh any transition costs.

On the distro front, Red Hat's decision to restrict RHEL cloning sparked community backlash. While business considerations were at play, Corbet noted technical factors too. Using older kernels with backported fixes, as RHEL does, risks creating divergent, vendor-specific branches. The Android model of tracking mainline kernel dev more closely has shown security benefits. Ultimately, Linux works best when aligned with the broader community.

In closing, Corbet recalled the saying "Linux is free like a puppy is free." Using open source seems easy at first, but sustaining it long-term requires significant care and feeding. As Linux is incorporated into more critical systems, that maintenance becomes ever more crucial. The kernel changes ahead are aimed at keeping Linux healthy and vibrant for the next generation of users, businesses, and developers.

Categories: General News

Guide to Setting Up Remote Desktop on Linux

Tue, 09/19/2023 - 11:00
by George Whittaker

In today's increasingly distributed work landscape, providing remote access to Linux devices is critical for organizations embracing location flexibility. Employees utilizing Linux machines need the ability to securely connect from anywhere to remain productive. Likewise, IT teams require remote Linux access for efficient troubleshooting, maintenance, and support across decentralized teams and infrastructure.

With proper configuration using the right protocols and tools, organizations can provide robust and secure remote Linux desktops to distributed workforces. However, setting up effective remote access for Linux can pose challenges given the diversity of distributions and use cases involved.

The Benefits of Remote Linux Desktop Capabilities

Linux is a highly popular and customizable open source operating system leveraged across personal devices, servers, cloud infrastructure, and more. Leading Linux distributions include Ubuntu, Fedora, Mint, Debian, openSUSE, Arch, and CentOS. This Linux ecosystem provides excellent security, performance, flexibility, and cost savings.

However, the same adaptability that makes Linux advantageous also leads to complexity in setting up remote desktop access. There is no one-size-fits-all approach. Enabling Linux remote connectivity requires considering:

  • The target Linux distribution and version
  • Device types from desktops to mobile
  • The operating system of the accessing client
  • Network configurations and bandwidth
  • Chosen remote access protocols and software
  • Use cases like troubleshooting versus everyday access

Despite these challenges, building the capability for Linux remote desktops delivers significant benefits:

  • Employees retain full access to files, settings, and apps on their Linux machines from anywhere with an internet connection. This improves productivity for remote and mobile workers.
  • Organizations avoid costs associated with purchasing additional devices to have Linux access in multiple locations or while traveling.
  • IT teams gain efficiency by remotely troubleshooting and administering Linux devices. Issues can be swiftly diagnosed and resolved.
  • Remote collaboration on Linux machines becomes seamless for distributed or hybrid teams.
  • With remote access, Linux devices can be flexibly used from different client types based on user preferences, such as Linux desktops, Windows PCs, Macs, tablets, and smartphones.
  • Overall equipment expenses and travel costs are reduced by enabling anytime, anywhere access to Linux machines for employees and IT staff.
Key Protocols and Tools for Linux Remote Connectivity

A few primary protocols dominate for accessing Linux remotely. Each has pros and cons to weigh based on use cases:

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Categories: General News

Linux Celebrates 32 Years with the Release of 6.6-rc2 Version

Sun, 09/17/2023 - 22:00

Today marks the 32nd anniversary of Linus Torvalds introducing the inaugural Linux 0.01 kernel version, and celebrating this milestone, Torvalds has launched the Linux 6.6-rc2. Among the noteworthy updates are the inclusion of a feature catering to the ASUS ROG Flow X16 tablet's mode handling and the renaming of the new GenPD subsystem to pmdomain.

The Linux 6.6 edition is progressing well, brimming with exciting new features that promise to enhance user experience. Early benchmarks are indicating promising results, especially on high-core-count servers, pointing to a potentially robust and efficient update in the Linux series.

Here is what Linus Torvalds had to say in today's announcement:

Another week, another -rc. I think the most notable thing about 6.6-rc2 is simply that it's exactly 32 years to the day since the 0.01 release. And that's a round number if you are a computer person. Because other than the random date, I don't see anything that really stands out here. We've got random fixes all over, and none of it looks particularly strange. The genpd -> pmdomain rename shows up in the diffstat, but there's no actual code changes involved (make sure to use "git diff -M" to see them as zero-line renames). And other than that, things look very normal. Sure, the architecture fixes happen to be mostly parisc this week, which isn't exactly the usual pattern, but it's also not exactly a huge amount of changes. Most of the (small) changes here are in drivers, with some tracing fixes and just random things. The shortlog below is short enough to scroll through and get a taste of what's been going on. Linus Torvalds
Categories: General News

Safeguarding Linux Landscapes: Backup and Restore Strategies

Thu, 09/14/2023 - 11:00
by George Whittaker Introduction

In the dynamic world of Linux environments, safeguarding data stands paramount. Whether for personal use or maneuvering through server settings, understanding the depth of backup and restore strategies can be a game-changer. This article unfurls the multifaceted avenues of Linux backup and restore strategies, touching upon the necessity to have a fortified plan and how it keeps the data landscape secure and retrievable in Linux operating systems.

Understanding Linux File System

Before delving into the intricacies of backup and restore strategies, it's vital to understand the Linux file system. Linux supports several file systems such as ext4, XFS, and Btrfs, each boasting unique features that govern how data is stored and retrieved. Appreciating the nuances of these file systems can significantly influence your backup and restore strategy, rendering it more robust and suited to your specific needs.

Backup Strategies

Protection starts with a proper backup strategy. Let's explore various backup avenues available in Linux environments.

Manual Backup Utilizing Basic Linux Commands

Linux offers potent commands like cp, tar, and rsync to facilitate manual backups. These commands are versatile, allowing users to specify exactly what to back up.

  • Full control over the backup process
  • No additional software required
  • Requires good knowledge of Linux commands
  • Time-consuming and prone to human errors
Automated Backup Cron Jobs

Cron jobs make it possible to schedule backups at regular intervals, automating the backup process and reducing the possibility of human error.

Linux Backup Solutions

Bacula and Amanda stand tall as holistic solutions offering a range of features to facilitate automated backups.

  • Regular automatic backups
  • Comprehensive solutions with detailed reporting
  • Can be complex to set up initially
  • Potential overhead on system resources
Restore Strategies

Having a backup is half the journey; being adept at restoration completes it. Let’s delineate various restoration strategies pertinent to Linux environments.

Manual Restore Restoring with Linux Commands

Using Linux commands for restoration carries the same pros and cons as using them for backups, offering control but requiring expertise.

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Categories: General News

Navigating the Landscape of Linux File System Types

Tue, 09/12/2023 - 11:00
by George Whittaker Introduction

In the Linux environment, the file system acts as a backbone, orchestrating the systematic storage and retrieval of data. It is a hierarchical structure that outlines how data is organized, stored, and accessed on a storage device. Understanding the different Linux file system types can profoundly aid both developers and administrators in optimizing system performance and ensuring data security. This article delves deep into the intricate world of Linux file system types, tracing their evolutionary history and dissecting their features to provide a roadmap for selecting the appropriate file system for your needs.

History of Linux File Systems

Early Adventures in Linux File Systems

In the late 80s and early 90s, the Linux environment utilized relatively rudimentary file systems such as Minix, which later evolved to extended file systems like ext and ext2. These were foundational in framing the modern Linux file systems we see today.

The Journey from ext2 to ext4

The extended family of file systems transitioned from ext2 to ext3, introducing journaling features, and eventually culminated in the development of ext4, which brought forth substantial improvements in performance and storage capabilities.

Understanding Linux File System Types

Dive into the fascinating world of Linux file systems, each characterized by its unique features and functionalities that cater to various demands and preferences.

The Extended Family
  • ext2

    • Features and Limitations: Known for its simplicity and robustness, ext2 lacks journaling capabilities, which can be a drawback in data recovery scenarios.
    • Use Cases: Ideal for USB drives and flash memory where journaling isn't a priority.
  • ext3

    • Features and Limitations: Building upon ext2, ext3 introduced journaling capabilities, improving data integrity yet lagging in performance compared to its successors.
    • Use Cases: Suitable for systems requiring data reliability without the need for top-tier performance.
  • ext4

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Categories: General News

How to Change the Hostname in Debian 12 BookWorm

Tue, 09/05/2023 - 11:00
by George Whittaker Introduction

In the vast realm of networked computers, each device needs a unique identifier—a name that allows it to be distinguishable from the crowd. This unique identifier is known as the "hostname." Whether you are working in a large corporate network or simply tinkering with a personal Linux box, you might find yourself needing to change this hostname at some point. This comprehensive guide walks you through the process of changing the hostname in Debian 12 BookWorm, one of the latest iterations of the popular Linux distribution Debian.


Before diving into the nitty-gritty, ensure you have the following:

  1. Access to a Terminal: You can access the terminal through your GUI or via SSH if you're working remotely.
  2. Superuser or sudo Privileges: Administrative access is necessary to make system-wide changes.
  3. Basic Understanding of Linux Command Line: Knowing how to navigate the terminal will be beneficial.
  4. Installed Instance of Debian 12 BookWorm: The instructions are tailored for this specific version.

To make sure we're on the same page, let's clarify some terminology:

  1. Hostname: A label assigned to a machine on a network.
  2. Superuser: The administrator with full access to the Linux system.
  3. sudo: Command that allows permitted users to execute a command as a superuser.
  4. /etc/hostname and /etc/hosts: Configuration files storing hostname information.
Backup Current Settings

It's always prudent to backup important configurations before making any changes. Open the terminal and run:

cp /etc/hostname /etc/hostname.bak cp /etc/hosts /etc/hosts.bak

This creates backup copies of your current hostname and hosts files.

Method 1: Using the hostnamectl Command Step 1: Check Current Hostname

To see your current hostname, run the following command:


Step 2: Change the Hostname

To change your hostname, execute:

sudo hostnamectl set-hostname new-hostname

Replace new-hostname with your desired hostname. For instance, to change the hostname to "mydebian," you'd run:

sudo hostnamectl set-hostname mydebian

Step 3: Verify the Changes

Use the hostnamectl command again to check if the hostname has been updated:


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Categories: General News

The Arch Decision: Evaluating If a Leap From Manjaro to EndeavourOS Is Right for You

Thu, 08/31/2023 - 11:00
by George Whittaker Introduction

In the expansive universe of Linux distributions, the choice of which one to use can be overwhelming. Among the galaxies of options, two Arch-based stars have shone increasingly brightly: Manjaro and EndeavourOS. Both are rooted in the Arch Linux ecosystem, yet they cater to different kinds of users and offer unique experiences. If you're currently a Manjaro user contemplating the switch to EndeavourOS, this article aims to help you make an informed decision.

Background Information What is Manjaro?

Manjaro is an Arch-based Linux distribution that is designed to be user-friendly and accessible. Known for its 'Install and Go' philosophy, Manjaro offers ease of use, making it suitable for Linux newcomers. It comes with a variety of desktop environments like XFCE, KDE, and GNOME, among others. Manjaro also features its own package manager, Pamac, which makes software installation a breeze. Automatic updates and built-in stability checks make it a go-to choice for those who want the power of Arch Linux without its complexities.

What is EndeavourOS?

EndeavourOS is also an Arch-based Linux distribution, but it aims to be closer to vanilla Arch. Targeted at intermediate to advanced users, EndeavourOS offers an almost bare-bones experience with the choice to customize your system as you see fit. While it does come with an installer, it is more manual compared to Manjaro's Calamares installer. It aims to provide the user with an Arch experience with minimal added features, relying mostly on the Arch User Repository (AUR) and Pacman for package management.

Comparison Criteria

To make an apples-to-apples comparison between Manjaro and EndeavourOS, we'll evaluate them based on the following criteria:

  • Ease of Installation
  • Package Management
  • Desktop Environments
  • System Performance
  • Software Availability
  • Community Support
  • Stability and Updates
Detailed Comparison Ease of Installation

Manjaro offers an incredibly user-friendly installation process via its Calamares installer. It is mostly automated and requires only minimal user interaction.

EndeavourOS, on the other hand, offers a more hands-on installation process. Though it also offers an installer, it allows for more customization during the setup, which might be more appealing to advanced users but intimidating for beginners.

Package Management

Manjaro uses Pamac for package management, which offers a clean, easy-to-use graphical interface. It also supports AUR, enabling a wide range of software availability.

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Categories: General News

How to Set or Modify the Path Variable in Linux

Tue, 08/29/2023 - 11:00
by George Whittaker Introduction

The Linux command line is a powerful tool that gives you complete control over your system. But to unleash its full potential, you must understand the environment in which it operates. One crucial component of this environment is the PATH variable. It's like a guide that directs the system to where it can find the programs you're asking it to run. In this article, we will delve into what the PATH variable is, why it's important, and how to modify it to suit your needs.

What is the PATH Variable?

The PATH is an environment variable in Linux and other Unix-like operating systems. It contains a list of directories that the shell searches through when you enter a command. Each directory is separated by a colon (:). When you type in a command like ls or gcc, the system looks through these directories in the order they appear in the PATH variable to find the executable file for the command.

For example, if your PATH variable contains the following directories:


and you type ls, the system will first look for the ls executable in /usr/local/sbin. If it doesn't find it there, it will move on to /usr/local/bin, and so on until it finds the executable or exhausts all directories in the PATH.

Why Modify the PATH Variable?

The default PATH variable usually works well for most users. However, there are scenarios where you might need to modify it:

  • Adding Custom Scripts: If you have custom scripts stored in a particular directory, adding that directory to your PATH allows you to run those scripts as commands from any location.

  • Software in Non-standard Locations: Some software may be installed in directories that are not in the default PATH. Adding such directories allows you to run the software without specifying its full path.

  • Productivity: Including frequently-used directories in your PATH can make your workflow more efficient, reducing the need to type full directory paths.

Temporarily Modifying the PATH Variable Using the export Command

To temporarily add a new directory to your PATH for the current session, you can use the export command as follows:

export PATH=$PATH:/new/directory/path

This modification will last until you close your terminal session.

Using the PATH=$PATH:/your/path Syntax

Alternatively, you can modify the PATH variable using the following syntax:

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Categories: General News

A Brief Story of Time and Timeout

Thu, 08/24/2023 - 11:00
by Nawaz Abbasi

When working in a Linux terminal, you often encounter situations where you need to monitor the execution time of a command or limit its runtime. The time and timeout commands are powerful tools that can help you achieve these tasks. In this tutorial, we'll explore how to use both commands effectively, along with practical examples.

Using the time Command

The time command in Linux is used to measure the execution time of a specified command or process. It provides information about the real, user, and system time used by the command. The real time represents the actual elapsed time, while the user time accounts for the CPU time consumed by the command, and the system time indicates the time spent by the system executing on behalf of the command.

Syntax time [options] command Example

Let's say you want to measure the time taken to execute the ls command:

time ls

The output will provide information like:

real 0m0.005s user 0m0.001s sys 0m0.003s

In this example, the real time is the actual time taken for the command to execute, while user and sys times indicate CPU time spent in user and system mode, respectively.

Using the timeout Command

The timeout command allows you to run a command with a specified time limit. If the command does not complete within the specified time, timeout will terminate it. This can be especially useful when dealing with commands that might hang or run indefinitely.

Syntax timeout [options] duration command Example

Suppose you want to limit the execution of a potentially time-consuming command, such as a backup script, to 1 minute:

timeout 1m ./

If completes within 1 minute, the command will finish naturally. However, if it exceeds the time limit, timeout will terminate it.

By default, timeout sends the SIGTERM signal to the command when the time limit is reached. You can also specify which signal to send using the -s (--signal) option.

Combining time and timeout

You can also combine the time and timeout commands to measure the execution time of a command within a time-constrained environment.

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Categories: General News

UNIX vs Linux: What's the Difference?

Tue, 08/22/2023 - 11:00
by George Whittaker

In the intricate landscape of operating systems, two prominent players have shaped the digital realm for decades: UNIX and Linux. While these two systems might seem similar at first glance, a deeper analysis reveals fundamental differences that have implications for developers, administrators, and users. In this comprehensive article, we embark on a journey to uncover the nuances that set UNIX and Linux apart, shedding light on their historical origins, licensing models, system architectures, communities, user interfaces, market applications, security paradigms, and more.

Historical Context

UNIX, a pioneer in the world of operating systems, emerged in the late 1960s at AT&T Bell Labs. Developed by a team led by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie, UNIX was initially created as a multitasking, multi-user platform for research purposes. In the subsequent decades, commercialization efforts led to the rise of various proprietary UNIX versions, each tailored to specific hardware platforms and industries.

In the early 1990s, a Finnish computer science student named Linus Torvalds ignited the open-source revolution by developing the Linux kernel. Unlike UNIX, which was mainly controlled by vendors, Linux leveraged the power of collaborative development. The open-source nature of Linux invited contributions from programmers across the globe, leading to rapid innovation and the creation of diverse distributions, each with unique features and purposes.

Licensing and Distribution

One of the most significant differentiators between UNIX and Linux lies in their licensing models. UNIX, being proprietary, often required licenses for usage and customization. This restricted the extent to which users could modify and distribute the system.

Conversely, Linux operates under open-source licenses, most notably the GNU General Public License (GPL). This licensing model empowers users to study, modify, and distribute the source code freely. The result is a plethora of Linux distributions catering to various needs, such as the user-friendly Ubuntu, the stability-focused CentOS, and the community-driven Debian.

Kernel and System Architecture

The architecture of the kernel—the core of an operating system—plays a crucial role in defining its behavior and capabilities. UNIX systems typically employ monolithic kernels, meaning that essential functions like memory management, process scheduling, and hardware drivers are tightly integrated.

Linux also utilizes a monolithic kernel, but it introduces modularity through loadable kernel modules. This enables dynamic expansion of kernel functionality without requiring a complete system reboot. Furthermore, the collaborative nature of Linux development ensures broader hardware support and adaptability to evolving technological landscapes.

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Categories: General News

The 8 Best SSH Clients for Linux

Thu, 08/17/2023 - 11:00
by George Whittaker Introduction

SSH, or Secure Shell, is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network. It's a vital part of modern server management, providing secure remote access to systems. SSH clients, applications that leverage SSH protocol, are an essential tool for system administrators, developers, and IT professionals. In the world of Linux, where remote server management is common, choosing the right SSH client can be crucial. This article will explore the 8 best SSH clients available for Linux.

The Criteria for Selection

When selecting the best SSH clients for Linux, several factors must be taken into consideration:


The speed and efficiency of an SSH client can make a significant difference in day-to-day tasks.

Security Features

With the critical nature of remote connections, the chosen SSH client must have robust security features.

Usability and Interface Design

The client should be easy to use, even for those new to SSH, with a clean and intuitive interface.

Community Support and Documentation

Available support and comprehensive documentation can be essential for troubleshooting and learning.

Compatibility with Different Linux Distributions

A wide compatibility ensures that the client can be used across various Linux versions.

The 8 Best SSH Clients for Linux OpenSSH Overview

OpenSSH is the most widely used SSH client and server system. It’s open-source and found in most Linux distributions.

  • Key management
  • SCP and SFTP support
  • Port forwarding
  • Strong encryption
Installation Process

OpenSSH can be installed using package managers like apt-get or yum.

Pros and Cons


  • Highly secure
  • Widely supported
  • Flexible


  • Can be complex for beginners
PuTTY Overview

PuTTY is a free and open-source terminal emulator. It’s known for its simplicity and wide range of features.

  • Supports SSH, Telnet, rlogin
  • Session management
  • GUI-based configuration
Installation Process

PuTTY can be installed from the official website or through Linux package managers.

Pros and Cons


  • User-friendly
  • Extensive documentation


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Categories: General News

Linux Containers Unleashed: A Comprehensive Guide to the Technology Revolutionizing Modern Computing

Tue, 08/15/2023 - 11:00
by George Whittaker Introduction Definition of Linux Containers

Linux Containers (LXC) are a lightweight virtualization technology that allows you to run multiple isolated Linux systems (containers) on a single host. Unlike traditional virtual machines, containers share the host system's kernel, providing efficiency and speed.

Brief History and Evolution

The concept of containerization dates back to the early mainframes, but it was with the advent of chroot in Unix in 1979 that it began to take a recognizable form. The Linux Containers (LXC) project, started in 2008, brought containers into the Linux kernel and laid the groundwork for the popular tools we use today like Docker and Kubernetes.

Importance in Modern Computing Environments

Linux Containers play a vital role in modern development, enabling efficiency in resource usage, ease of deployment, and scalability. From individual developers to large-scale cloud providers, containers are a fundamental part of today's computing landscape.

Linux Containers (LXC) Explained Architecture Containers vs. Virtual Machines

While Virtual Machines (VMs) emulate entire operating systems, including the kernel, containers share the host kernel. This leads to a significant reduction in overhead, making containers faster and more efficient.

The Kernel's Role

The Linux kernel is fundamental to containers. It employs namespaces to provide isolation and cgroups for resource management. The kernel orchestrates various operations, enabling containers to run as isolated user space instances.

User Space Tools

Tools like Docker, Kubernetes, and OpenVZ interface with the kernel to manage containers, providing user-friendly commands and APIs.

Features Isolation

Containers provide process and file system isolation, ensuring that applications run in separate environments, protecting them from each other.

Resource Control

Through cgroups, containers can have resource limitations placed on CPU, memory, and more, allowing precise control over their utilization.

Network Virtualization

Containers can have their network interfaces, enabling complex network topologies and isolation.

Popular Tools Docker

Docker has become synonymous with containerization, offering a complete platform to build, ship, and run applications in containers.


Kubernetes is the de facto orchestration system for managing containerized applications across clusters of machines, providing tools for deploying applications, scaling them, and managing resources.


OpenVZ is a container-based virtualization solution for Linux, focusing on simplicity and efficiency, particularly popular in VPS hosting environments.

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Categories: General News

5 Reasons To Choose Ubuntu Cinnamon Over Anything Else

Thu, 08/10/2023 - 11:00
by George Whittaker Introduction

Ubuntu, a popular open-source operating system based on Debian, is known for its ease of use and the variety of flavors it offers. Each flavor comes with a different desktop environment and features, and one of the latest additions to this list is Ubuntu Cinnamon.

In this article, we will explore five reasons why some users might prefer Ubuntu Cinnamon over other Ubuntu flavors, such as Ubuntu GNOME, Kubuntu, Xubuntu, and others.

Reason 1: User-Friendly Interface Cinnamon Desktop Environment

Ubuntu Cinnamon leverages the Cinnamon desktop environment, initially developed for Linux Mint. Known for its traditional and intuitive design, it offers an experience that’s familiar to users migrating from other operating systems like Windows.

Ease of Use

Ubuntu Cinnamon is renowned for its simplicity and ease of use. The layout is straightforward, with a clear application menu, taskbar, and system tray. This layout helps new users adapt quickly without a steep learning curve.


Compared to GNOME’s more minimalistic approach or KDE's feature-rich environment, Cinnamon hits a sweet spot of being both functional and not overly complex. Its usability strikes a chord with both newbies and seasoned Linux users.

Visual Appeal

The visual aesthetics of Ubuntu Cinnamon, with its clean lines and modern look, can be appealing to many users. The default themes are both elegant and eye-pleasing, without being distracting.

Reason 2: Performance Efficiency System Requirements

One of Ubuntu Cinnamon's strengths is its ability to run smoothly on a wide range of hardware configurations, from older machines to the latest PCs. It consumes less memory compared to some other Ubuntu flavors, providing a responsive experience even on limited resources.

Speed and Responsiveness

Ubuntu Cinnamon is known for its speed and quick response times. The Cinnamon desktop environment is lighter, and users often report faster boot times and overall system responsiveness.


When compared to other desktop environments like KDE, which might require more system resources, Ubuntu Cinnamon's efficiency becomes evident, making it a great choice for performance-conscious users.

Reason 3: Customization Flexibility

Cinnamon allows for extensive customization. From the panel layout to the window behaviors, almost everything can be tweaked to fit personal preferences.

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Categories: General News

How to Count Files in a Directory in Linux?

Tue, 08/08/2023 - 11:00
by George Whittaker Introduction

File counting in a directory is a common task that many users might need to perform. It could be for administrative purposes, understanding disk usage, or organizing files in a systematic manner. Linux, an open-source operating system known for its powerful command-line interface, offers multiple ways to accomplish this task. In this article, we'll explore various techniques to count files in a directory, catering to both command-line enthusiasts and those who prefer graphical interfaces.


Before proceeding, it is essential to have some basic knowledge of the command line in Linux. If you're new to the command line, you might want to familiarize yourself with some introductory tutorials. Here's how you can get started:

  • Accessing the Terminal: Most Linux distributions provide a terminal application that you can find in the Applications menu. You can also use shortcut keys like Ctrl+Alt+T in some distributions.

  • Basic Command Line Skills: Understanding how to navigate directories and basic command usage will be helpful.

Using the ‘ls’ Command and Piping with ‘wc’ The ‘ls’ Command

The ls command in Linux is used to list files and directories. You can use it with the wc command to count files.

Counting Files with ‘ls’ and ‘wc’

You can count files in a directory by using the following command:

ls -1 | wc -l

Here, ls -1 lists the files in a single column, and wc -l counts the lines, effectively giving you the number of files.


In your home directory, you can run:

cd ~ ls -1 | wc -l

Utilizing the ‘find’ Command The ‘find’ Command

find is a powerful command that allows you to search for files and directories. You can use it to count files as well.

Counting Files with ‘find’

To count all the files in the current directory and its subdirectories, use:

find . -type f | wc -l


To count only text files in a directory, you can use:

find . -name "*.txt" -type f | wc -l

Implementing the ‘tree’ Command Introduction to ‘tree’

The tree command displays directories as trees, with directory paths as branches and filenames as leaves.


If ‘tree’ is not installed, you can install it using:

sudo apt-get install tree # Debian/Ubuntu sudo yum install tree # RedHat/CentOS

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Categories: General News

Add a User to sudo Group in Debian 12 Linux

Thu, 08/03/2023 - 11:00
by George Whittaker Introduction

In Linux systems, including Debian 12, the sudo group grants users the ability to execute administrative commands. This provides them with the privileges to install, update, and delete software, modify system configurations, and more.

Administrative permissions are vital for maintaining and controlling the operating system. They allow you to perform tasks that regular users cannot, ensuring security and overall system health.

This article is intended for system administrators, advanced users, or anyone responsible for managing Debian 12 systems.

Administering sudo permissions must be done with care. Inappropriate use of sudo can lead to system vulnerabilities, damage, or data loss.

Prerequisites Debian 12 System Requirements

Ensure that you have Debian 12 installed with the latest updates.

Necessary Permissions

You must have root or sudo access to modify user groups.

How to Open a Terminal Window

Press "Ctrl + Alt + T" or search for "Terminal" in the application menu.

Understanding the sudo Group

The sudo group allows users to execute commands as a superuser or another user. It promotes better security by limiting root access. However, misuse can lead to system instability. Root has unlimited access, while sudo provides controlled administrative access.

Identifying the User List Existing Users

cut -d: -f1 /etc/passwd

Select the User

Choose the username you wish to add to the sudo group.

Check Existing sudo Group Membership


Adding the User to the sudo Group Command-line Method Open a Terminal

Start by opening the terminal window.

Switching to Root User

su -

Using the usermod Command

usermod -aG sudo

Verifying the Addition


Graphical User Interface (GUI) Method
  1. Open Users and Groups management.
  2. Find the user, select Properties, and check the "sudo" box.
  3. Confirm and apply changes.

If errors occur, consult system logs, or use:

journalctl -xe

Remove the user from the sudo group using:

gpasswd -d sudo

Check man pages, forums, or official Debian documentation.

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Categories: General News

Organizing Secure Document Collaboration: How to Install ONLYOFFICE DocSpace Server on Linux

Tue, 08/01/2023 - 11:00
by George Whittaker Introduction

Nowadays, online document collaboration is a must for everyone. You definitely need to co-edit numerous docs with your teammates as well as work on office files with various external users, almost everyday.

Keeping this in mind, the open-source project ONLYOFFICE released the DocSpace solution which allows connecting people and files and levels up document collaboration. Let's discover its features and installation options.

Key features

ONLYOFFICE DocSpace is intended to improve collaboration on documents with various  people you need to interact, for example, your colleagues, teammates, customers, partners, contractors, sponsors, etc.

The platform comes with integrated online viewers and editors allowing you to work with files of multiple formats, including text docs, digital forms, sheets, presentations, PDFs, e-books, and multimedia.


ONLYOFFICE DocSpace provides a room-based environment which allows organizing a clear file structure depending on your needs or project goals. DocSpace rooms are group spaces with the pre-set access level to ensure quick file sharing and avoid unnecessary repeated actions.

Currently, two types of rooms are available:

  • Collaboration rooms to co-author docs, track changes and communicate in real time.
  • Custom rooms for any custom purpose, for example, to request document review or comments, or share any content for viewing only.

In the future releases, the ONLYOFFICE developers are going to add further room types such as form filling rooms and private rooms for end-to-end encrypted collaboration.

User roles

Flexible access permissions allow you to fine-tune the access to the whole space or separate rooms. Available actions with files in a room depend on the given role.

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Categories: General News